Climate change is already threatening many poor people and their chances of development. Unless these particularly vulnerable people are enabled to adapt to climate change they will fall further into poverty. Effective and sustainable adaptation addresses the physical risks occurring with climate change by reducing vulnerability, increasing resilience and enhancing adaptive capacity. Ensuring that the Adaptation Fund (AF) established under the Kyoto Protocol works for the most vulnerable people is rooted in international human rights obligations and enshrined in the strategic priorities of the AF. The innovative features of the Fund provide the potential for achieving this objective. Although the Fund has only just begun its concrete implementation phase, this paper identifies entry points where the Board of the Fund must focus its attentions in order to ensure it meets its priority, and makes recommendations.